Board Certified Specialist
Police & Public Safety Psychology
Dr. Gary L. Fischler earned a doctorate in Clinical Psychology from the University of Minnesota in 1984, has been licensed to practice psychology in Minnesota since 1986, and in Wisconsin since 2013. He is a Board Certified Specialist of the American Board of Police and Public Safety Psychology and a member of its Board of Directors, serving as its National Chair of Examinations. He is a past General Chair of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Police Psychology Services Section (PPSS). He is an adjunct assistant professor of psychology at the University of Minnesota and has served as the chair of the University of Minnesota Press Advisory Board, Test Division. He is a past chair of the IACP PPSS Education Committee, Fitness-For-Duty Guidelines Committee, and Ethics Consultation Committee. He is a past chair of the Ethics Committee of the Minnesota Psychological Association and has served as a court-appointed psychological examiner in Hennepin County since 1995. Dr. Fischler’s special interests relate to the interface between psychology, legal issues, and workplace concerns, and he has authored or co-authored several publications on these topics.
Personality, intellectual, and neuropsychological assessment; Individual, couple, and group psychotherapy (adult specialty); Chemical dependency assessment; Public safety personnel screening and fitness for duty examinations; Forensic Psychology; Clinical supervision, teaching, and research.
o SPECIAL INTERESTS
Police & Public Safety, Forensic, Disability, and Fitness-for-duty issues. Objective personality assessment. MMPI-2 and MMPI-2-RF research.
Ph.D. Clinical Psychology, 1984
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota
B.A. Psychology, Cum Laude, 1977
University of Rochester, Rochester, New York
Minnesota Licensed Psychologist (No. LP0722)
Wisconsin Licensed Psychologist (No. 3119-57)
Board Certified Specialist in Police & Public Safety Psychology, American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) (Diploma No. 6981) (2011-present)
Health Service Provider, National Register of Health Service Providers in Psychology (ID No. 52587) (2009-present)
Certificate of Professional Qualifications in Psychology, Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. Certificate No. 4295 (2012-present)
Interjurisdictional Practice Certificate (IPC), Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. Certificate No. 4295 (2012-present)
Certified Telehealth Practitioner, TeleMental Health Institute, Inc. (2012-present)
Substance Abuse Professional (SAP) Certification, National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors – NAADAC, Certification Number 12788 (2005-2008, expired)
o CURRENT PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES
1988 – present: Director. Gary L. Fischler & Associates, PA. Forensic, disability, and vocational rehabilitation psychological evaluation; Pre-employment and fitness-for-duty psychological evaluations for law enforcement and public safety personnel; Training, consultation, and research. Manage national network of 20+ psychological examiners for federal agencies such as the U.S. Department of Justice Drug Enforcement Administration and U.S. Health & Human Services Federal Occupational Health program. Manage group of seven psychologists providing Compensation and Pension Examinations for the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.
1986 – present: Adjunct Assistant Professor. University of Minnesota, Department of Psychology, Clinical Science and Psychopathology Research program.
Taught classes in personality assessment and brief psychotherapy/ crisis intervention. Supervision of assessment practicum graduate students.
1995 – present. Court-appointed Examiner. Hennepin County District Court, Mental Health Division. Providing examinations and court testimony for involuntary commitment of individuals with mental illness and/or chemical dependency.
2001 – 2017. Compensation & Pension Examination Contract Manager. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Evaluate veterans who apply for compensation and pension benefits on the basis of posttraumatic stress disorder or other psychological disorder related to military service.
2001 – present. US Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration. Contract Manager. Responsible for overseeing network of psychologists providing preemployment psychological evaluations to Special Agents (currently responsible for 25 states).
2013 – present. Advisory Board Member (Currently Chair). University of Minnesota Press. The board is responsible for:
(1) working with the Test Division in setting research/development priorities, recommending activities that will support improvements in the instruments designed to increase their utility and expand their scope;
(2) advising the Test Division regarding the preparation and dissemination of requests for research/development proposals;
(3) reviewing proposals submitted to the Test Division annually for its research/development program on all tests the Press publishes (primarily MMPI instruments);
(4) reviewing all proposed publications of the Test Division.
o PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
-American Psychological Association (APA) (Fellow):
-Public Service: Police and Public Safety Section (18)
-American Psychology & Law Society (41)
-Minnesota Psychological Association (MPA):
-Forensic Psychology Division, Co-Chair, 2009-2011
-Ethics Committee, 2001-2007 (Chair 2005-2007)
-Psychologically Healthy Workplace Award Committee, Chair, 1999 – 2003
-International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP):
-Police Psychology Services Section (PPSS) Member (1991-present)
-Fitness-For-Duty Guidelines Revision Committee, 2003 – 2013 (Chair 2007-2009; Co-Chair 2013)
-Ethics Committee, Chair, 2010 – 2013
-Executive Board Member (2013-2018)
-PPSS Section Chair (2017-2018)
-American Board of Police & Public Safety Psychology
-National Chair of Examinations (2018-present)
-Oral Examination Coordinator (2011-2018)
-Board of Directors, Member-at-Large (2013-present)
-Society of Police and Criminal Psychology
-Minnesota Chiefs of Police Association (Supporting member)
-International Association for Correctional & Forensic Psychology (2006-present)
-Minnesota Chiefs of Police Association (1996-present)
o PREVIOUS EMPLOYMENT
1986-1988: Senior Clinical Psychologist. Hennepin County Mental Health Center, Minneapolis.
1983-1986: Clinical Psychologist.
1981-1982: Clinical Psychology Intern.
1979-1980: Psychological Associate. Veteran Administration Medical Center, Minneapolis.
o PREVIOUS PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
1990-2012: Adjunct Faculty, The Minnesota School of Professional Psychology at Argosy University, Twin Cities. Taught courses in Objective Personality Assessment, Intellectual Assessment, Diagnostic Interviewing, and Brief Psychotherapy and Crisis Intervention. Supervision of assessment practicum graduate students.
2000-2003: Co-Coordinator, Crisis Intervention Team (CIT). Minneapolis Police Department. Helped develop, coordinated, and instructed 40-hour training course of the CIT special response police team. Coordinated services with Hennepin County, other community groups, and consumer groups.
1987-2004: Consulting Psychologist. State of Minnesota Division of Rehabilitation Services. Evaluation of vocational rehabilitation clients for the purposes of vocational rehabilitation planning; case consultation, training, and staff development.
2000: Editorial Reviewer. American Family Physician Journal.
1993-1999: Supervising/Consulting Psychologist. Kelly Institute Supervise and consult with staff of Rule 25 Mental Health/Chemical Dependency day treatment program on issues related to psychological practice issues.
1989-1995: Utilization Review Appeals Reviewer. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Minnesota.
1992-1995: Consulting Psychologist. KARR Project NetWork. Provided case review/consultation and psychological evaluation and treatment services for this Social Security Administration 30-month pilot research project exploring whether private rehabilitation efforts will benefit Social Security Disability recipients.
1988-1990: Consulting Psychologist. Hennepin Pain Clinic and Research Center, Minneapolis. Evaluation and treatment of a wide spectrum of pain conditions; teaching of medical students and other health professionals.
1987: Consulting and Supervising Psychologist. Metropolitan Clinic of Counseling. Provided Rule 29 supervision and diagnostic chart review.
1986-1987: Behavioral Psychologist. Minnesota Head and Neck Pain Clinic.
1985-1986: Consulting and Supervising Psychologist. Centro Cultural Chicano.
o PUBLICATIONS AND MANUSCRIPTS
Ben-Porath, Y.S., Detrick, P., & Fischler, G.L. (2004). Examining an MMPI-2-based model for screening public safety employee candidates. Poster presented at the 39th Annual MMPI-2 Research Symposium, Minneapolis, MN.
Faul, K.A. & Fischler, G.L. (2017). Preventing and mitigating posttraumatic stress reactions: The importance of ongoing education, training and support. Minnesota Fire Chief. May/June 2017.
Fischler, G.L. (1983). Qualitative and process measures of social‑cognitive problem-solving
skills in elementary school children: Relationships with social and emotional adjustment. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota.
Fischler, G.L. (1992). Diagnostic Interviewing: Supervisory Training Manual. Minneapolis: United Behavioral Systems.
Fischler, G.L. (1997). Psychological examination of peace officer applicants: Theory and practice. Minnesota Police Chief, 17, 35-37.
Fischler, G.L. (2000). Assessing Fitness-For-Duty and Return-to-Work Readiness for People with Mental Health Problems, MCDA Communique, Summer 2000.
Fischler, G.L. (2000). Predicting and maximizing return-to-work outcomes for people with mental health disorders, Journal of Controversial Medical Claims, 7, 15-21.
Fischler, G.L. (2001). Using Pre-employment Psychological Assessment to Maximize Hiring Outcomes. Human Resource Professionals Update, 5, 4-6.
Fischler, G.L. (2001). Psychological Fitness-for-Duty Examinations: Practical Considerations for Public Safety Departments. Illinois Law Enforcement Training and Standards Board Forum, 1, 77-92.
Fischler, G.L. (2001). Psychological Health in the Workplace: It’s worth the extra effort. Employee Benefits Planner. Third Quarter Edition, 14-15.
Fischler, G.L. (2018). Screening for Minneapolis police recruits is concerning. Minneapolis StarTribune, September 14, 2018.
Fischler, G.L. & Booth, N.E. (1999). Vocational Impact of Psychiatric Disorders: A Guide for Rehabilitation Professionals. Baltimore: Aspen Publishers.
Fischler, G.L. & Faul, K.A., (2019). Maximizing the Value of Pre-employment Psychological Screening for Police Officers, Minnesota Police Chief Association.
Fischler, G.L., McElroy, H.K., Miller, L., Saxe-Clifford, S., Stewart, C.O., & Zelig, M. (2011). The Role of Psychological Fitness-for-Duty Evaluations in Law Enforcement. Police Chief, 78, 72-78.
Fischler, G.L. & Kendall, P.C. (1988). Social-cognitive problem-solving and childhood adjustment: Qualitative and topological analyses. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 12, 133-154.
Fischler, G.L. & Kerber, J. (1994). Computerized scoring program for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – Revised (WAIS-R). Minneapolis, MN: Gary L. Fischler & Associates, P.A.
Kendall, P.C., & Fischler, G.L. (1983). Teaching rational self-talk to impulsive children. In A. Ellis & M. Bernard (Eds.) Rational self-talk with children and youth New York: Plenum.
Kendall, P.C., & Fischler, G.L. (1984). Behavioral and adjustment correlates of problem solving: Validational analyses of interpersonal problem-solving measures. Child Development, 55, 879-889.
Sellbom, M., Fischler, G.L., & Ben-Porath, Y.S. (May, 2006). Good Cop or Bad Cop? Predicting Negative Outcomes in Police Officers with the Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales.
Paper presented at the 41st Annual Symposium on Recent Developments in the Use of the MMPI-2 and MMPI-A, Minneapolis, MN.
Sellbom, M., Fischler, G. L., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2007). Identifying MMPI-2 Predictors of Police Officer Integrity and Misconduct. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34, 985-1004.
Tarescavage, A.M., Fischler, G.L., Cappo, B., Hill, D.O., Corey, D.M., Ben-Porath, Y.S. (2015). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Predictors of Police Officer Problem Behavior and Collateral Self-Report Test Scores. Psychological Assessment, 27, 2015, 125-137.
Zuckerman, M., Brown, R.H., Fischler, G.L., Fox, G.A., Lathin, D.R., & Minasian, A.T. (1979). Determinants of information‑seeking behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 161-174.
o RESEARCH GRANTS
-2003-2004: Project Director. Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS) Office of the United States Department of Justice (US DOJ) (CFDA No. 16.710), Culture of Integrity, with the Minneapolis Police Department. Involved in design, implementation, and write-up of research following-up over 500 police officers to predict misconduct from pre-employment psychological data.
-1980-1982: Co-principal Investigator. Interpersonal Cognition and Behavior, National Institute of Mental Health.
o WORKSHOPS AND PRESENTATIONS
-10/26/19: The Psychological Assessment of Police Applicants with VA Disability Ratings (1.5 hrs.). Co-presented with Richard Wihera, Ph.D., ABPP. International Association of Chiefs of Police – Police Psychological Services Section (IACP-PPSS) Conference. Chicago, IL.
-10/22/19: Dealing with Troubled and Problem Employees: Fitness for Duty Psychological Evaluations (1.5 hrs.). Co-presented with Jeff Potts, Chief, Bloomington PD. Gary L. Fischler & Associates PA and Bloomington PD, Symposium on Police and Public Safety Psychology. Bloomington, MN.
-8/7/19: The Psychological Assessment of Police Applicants with VA Disability Ratings (1.0 hr.). Co-presented with Richard Wihera, Ph.D., ABPP. APA Division 18 Police & Public Safety Section Conference. Chicago, IL.
-6/6/16: Hot topics in law enforcement psychological services. (1.25 hours). 2016 IACP State & Provincial Police Midyear Conference. Maplewood, MN.
-10/19/14: Reasoning Errors in Ethical Decision-Making. (Panel; 1 hour). International Association of Chiefs of Police, Police Psychology Services Section, Ethics Consultation Committee. Philadelphia, PA.
-10/24/14: Replicating the Fischler job outcome research (Sellbom, Fischler, & Ben Porath, 2007) using the JR & A CPI Selection Report (Panel with Ryan Roberts & Yossi Ben Porath; 1.5 hours). Johnson Roberts Associates Conference. Orlando, FL.
-4/3/13: Pre-employment Psychological Screening. (.5 hours). League of Minnesota Cities – Loss Control Workshops. (repeated 4/4/13, 4/10/13, and 4/25/13 at various locations in Minnesota).
-04/13/13: A Model for an Elective Peer Review Group. (Panel; 1.5 hours). California Psychological Association. Newport Beach, CA.
-09/30/12: Using Decision-Making Models in Ethical Dilemmas. (Panel; 1 hour). International Association of Chiefs of Police, Police Psychology Services Section, Ethics Consultation Committee. San Diego, CA.
-10/22/11: Resolving Ethical Ambiguities in Police Psychology. (Panel; 1.5 hours). International Association of Chiefs of Police, Police Psychology Services Section, Ethics Consultation Committee. Chicago, IL.
-10/23/11: Factors Involved in Determining Fitness & Issues Related to Recommendations. (Panel; 1 hour). International Association of Chiefs of Police, Police Psychology Services Section, Chicago, IL.
-10/24/10: Addressing Ethical Issues in the Practice of Police Psychology. (Panel; 1 hour). International Association of Chiefs of Police, Police Psychology Services Section, Ethics Consultation Committee. Orlando, FL.
-5/13/10: (repeated 6/17/10, 6/24/10, 7/8/10). Understanding the Vocational Impact of Mental Health Disorders (3.5 hours). Texas Department of Assistive and Rehabilitative Services (through the University of Arkansas). Houston, Dallas, San Antonio, and El Paso, Texas.
-6/4/09: (repeated 7/15/09). Critical Incident Training (.5 hours). Burnsville Police Department, Burnsville, MN.
-5/11/09: Firefighters with Attention Deficit Disorder & Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (panel discussion; 1.0 hour). The Leader’s Toolbox podcast on Firehouse.com. http://dynamic.firehouse.com/broadcast/2009/05/18/the-leaders-toolbox-firefighters-with-attention-deficit-disorder-attention-deficithyperactivity-disorder/
-03/18/09: Psychological Evaluations for Protective Service Personnel: Fitness-for-Duty and Pre-employment Screening. (5.0 hours). Cities and Villages Mutual Insurance Company. Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin.
-03/19/09: Fitness For Duty Mental Health Exams: What the Attorney Needs to Know. (Panel; 3.0 hours). Hennepin County Bar Association. Minneapolis, MN.
-08/14/08: Fitness for Duty Issues. (Panel; 1.5 hours). Minnesota Public Employers Labor Relations Association (MPELRA). Brainerd, MN.
-01/11/08: Fitness for Duty Mental-Health Exams: When Are They Available, When Are They Desirable, and What the Psychologist Needs to Know (Panel; 1 hour). Minnesota State Bar Association Continuing Legal Education – Public Sector Labor & Employment Law Conference. Minneapolis, MN.
-02/01/07: Using Psychological Evaluations in Employment Matters (3 hours). Hennepin County Bar Association. Minneapolis, MN.
-09/22/06: Psychological Fitness-For-Duty Evaluations for Public Safety Personnel (3 hours). Conference title: The Effective and Responsible use of Psychological Tests in Pre-employment Selection. University of Minnesota Workshops, Albuquerque, NM
-10/20/05: Understanding the Vocational Impact of Mental Health Disorders (6.75 hours). Minnesota Rehabilitation Counseling Association (MRCA). Eagan, MN.
-09/23/05: Recent Research Identifying Psychometric Predictors of Police Officer Integrity Problems: International Association of Chiefs of Police, Police Psychology Section 2005 Workshop (Panel; 1.5 hours). Police and Public Safety Psychology Section (Division 18), American Psychological Association. Miami, FL.
-07/26/05: Psychological Factors in Disability & Return-to-Work (2.5 hours). 7th Annual Federal Workers Compensation Conference. Washington, D.C.
-04/29/05: Cultural Competence as an Ethical Issue (Panel Discussion, 1.5 hours). Minnesota Psychological Association, Brooklyn Center, MN.
-04/14/05: Psychological Fitness-For-Duty Evaluations for Public Safety Personnel (3 hours). Conference title: The Effective and Responsible use of Psychological Tests in Pre-employment Selection. University of Minnesota Workshops, Fort Lauderdale, FL.
-10/24/04: Psychological Fitness-For-Duty Evaluations for Public Safety Personnel (3 hours). Conference title: The Effective and Responsible use of Psychological Tests in Pre-employment Selection. Pearson Assessments. Houston, TX.
-10/14/04 : Understanding the Impact of Psychiatric Disorders in the Workplace (5.5 hours). University of Wisconsin-Stout Vocational Rehabilitation Conference. Menomonie, WI.
-10/04/04: Managing Mental Health Problems in the Workplace (3.5 hours). University of Minnesota 15th Annual Occupational Health Nursing Symposium, Burnsville.
-4/30/04: Comparing the 1992 and 2002 APA Ethical Principles: What’s New? (Panel Discussion, 1.5 hours). Minnesota Psychological Association, Bloomington.
-11/13-14/03: Understanding the Vocational Impact of Psychiatric Disorders (3.5 hours). Nebraska Department of Education (Vocational Rehabilitation). Kearney, NE.
-10/08/03: Managing Mental Health Problems in the Workplace (4 hours). Mayo Foundation. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
-09/13/03: Psychological Fitness-For-Duty Evaluations for Public Safety Personnel (3 hours). Conference title: The Effective and Responsible use of Psychological Tests in Pre-employment Selection. Pearson Assessments. New Orleans, LA.
-6/26/03: Determining Psychological Fitness in the Workplace (1.5 hours). Hennepin County Bar Association. Minneapolis, MN.
-6/13/03: Walk through a Civil Commitment Exam (1 hour). Hennepin County Bar Association Civil Commitment Seminar. Minneapolis, MN.
-6/12/03: Using Psychological Evaluations in Employment Matters (1.0 hour). Psychologists in the Courtroom: A Practical Guide for Lawyers. Co-sponsored by the Hamline University School of Law & Minnesota Psychological Association, St. Paul, MN.
-6/11/03: Vocational Impact of Psychiatric Disorders (3 hours). Association for Persons in Supported Employment Annual Conference. Kearney, NE.
-6/5/03: Conducting Public Safety Employee Evaluations (1.5 hours). 38th Annual MMPI-2/MMPI-A Workshops & Symposium. Kent State University.
-4/29/03 : Service Providers Training on Working with the Police. (Panel Discussion) Hennepin County. Hennepin County Medical Center, Minneapolis.
-02/02/03: Psychological Fitness-For-Duty Evaluations for Public Safety Personnel (1.5 hours). Conference title: The Effective and Responsible use of Psychological Tests in Pre-employment Selection. Pearson Assessments. Phoenix, Arizona.
-11/02: Understanding the Vocational Impact of Psychiatric Disorders (7 hours). Minnesota Rehabilitation Counseling Association – Fall 2002 Conference, St. Paul.
-11/02: Mischief Maker or Terrorist? The Limitations of Psychological Predictors (1 hour). Midwest Center for Occupational Health & Safety, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
-1/01 – 9/02: Dealing with Mentally Ill Persons: A Practical Guide for Law Enforcement Personnel (6 hours). Anoka County Sheriff’s Department, Coon Rapids, Minnesota (Also repeated for Metropolitan Airport Commission PD, Crystal PD, New Hope PD, and Robbinsdale PD.).
-5/02: The Changing Face of Ethics (Panel; 1.5 hours). Minnesota Psychological Association. Bloomington, MN.
-4/02: Understanding the Vocational Impact of Psychiatric Disorders in Young Adults (6 hours). St. Paul Public Schools, St. Paul.
-4/02: Understanding the Vocational Impact of Major Mental Illness (2 hours). Minnesota Rehabilitation Counseling Association. St. Paul.
-1/02: Diagnostic Interviewing Strategies and Techniques: The Art and Science of Using the DSM-IV (3 hours). Minnesota Psychological Association, First Friday Forum, St. Paul.
-9/01: Using the MMPI-2 in Clinical Practice: A Practical Guide (3 hours). Quesnell & Associates, St. Paul.
-5/01: Psychological Fitness-For-Duty Exams: Best Practices (1 hour). North Central Occupational and Environmental Medical Association. Bloomington, MN.
-5/01: Introduction to Mental Health Issues at Work. Minneapolis Neighborhood Employment Network (6 hours). Minneapolis.
-4/01: Understanding the Vocational Impact of Psychiatric Disorders (6 hours). Minnesota Division of Rehabilitation Services, St. Cloud, MN.
-3/01: The Fitness-for-Duty Exam: A Workshop for Public-Safety Administrators Dealing with Problem Personnel (4 hours). Wisconsin Chiefs of Police Association, Oshkosh, WI.
-3/01: The Use of Psychological Testing in Vocational Rehabilitation (3 hours). Minnesota Division of Rehabilitation Services, St. Paul, MN.
-3/01: Police Response to Mental Illness: Current Status and Future Directions (2 hours). St. Louis Park Police Department. St. Louis Park, MN.
-3/01: A Practical Guide to MMPI-2 Interpretation (6 hours). Minnesota School of Professional Psychology, Minneapolis.
-2/01: Psychological Issues in the Workplace and the Fitness-For-Duty Examination (3 hours). Minnesota Department of Corrections, St. Paul.
-2/01: Vocational Impact of Psychiatric Disorders (6 hours). Minnesota School of Professional Psychology. Minneapolis.
-1/01: Diagnostic Interviewing Strategies and Techniques: The Art and Science of Using the DSM-IV (6 hours). Minnesota School of Professional Psychology. Minneapolis.
-1/01: Coping With Court: Being an Effective Expert Witness (with John Clark, Ph.D.) (6 hours). Minnesota School of Professional Psychology, Minneapolis.
-3/00: Fitness-for-Duty & Return-to-Work Issues with Psychiatric Disorders (2 hours). General Electric Occupational Health Conference, Greensboro, NC. (Repeated in 5/00 in Montreal, Quebec).
-1/00: Personality Disorders: Diagnosis and Treatment (6 hours). Minnesota School of Professional Psychology. Minneapolis.
-6/99: Psychological Factors in Police Selection (1 hour). Minnesota Peace Officers Background Association. Eden Prairie, MN.
-11/98: Vocational Impact of Psychiatric Disorders (With Frank Levin, Esq.). National Organization of Social Security Claimants’ Representatives (NOSSCR). (2 hours). San Antonio, TX.
-5/98: Personality Disorders: Functional Impairments and Implications for Rehabilitation and Disability Determination (2 hours). National Association of Disability Examiners. St. Paul, MN.
-4/98: Psychological Screening of Police Officer Candidates: Theory and Practice (2 hours). Minnesota Chiefs of Police Association. St. Cloud, MN.
-4/96: Psychological Testing for Adults with ADHD (Panel; 1.5 hours). Minnesota Association on Higher Education and Disability (MN AHEAD). Brooklyn Center, MN.
-11/95: Psychiatric Conditions and in the Workplace (1 hour). Minnesota Rehabilitation Counseling Association. Shoreview, MN.
-10/95: Personality Disorders: Functional Implications and Vocational Impact (6 hours). Minnesota Rehabilitation Association. Brainerd, MN.
-02/02/95: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders in Adults: Evaluation, Treatment, and Accommodations (With Dr. Dorothy Edelson, 1.5 hours). Minnesota Association for Higher Education and Disabilities. St. Paul, MN.